In response to the financial crisis of 2008, the Committee and its oversight body, the Group of Governors and Heads of Supervision, have developed a reform programme to address the lessons of the crisis, which delivers on the mandates for banking sector reforms established by the G20 at their 2009 Pittsburgh summit. Collectively, the new global standards to address both firm-specific and broader, systemic risks have been referred to as “Basel III”.
“Basel III” is a comprehensive set of reform measures, developed by the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, to strengthen the regulation, supervision and risk management of the banking sector. These measures aim to:
- Improve the banking sector’s ability to absorb shocks arising from financial and economic stress, whatever the source
- Improve risk management and governance
- Strengthen banks’ transparency and disclosures.
The reforms target:
1. Bank-level, or microprudential, regulation, which will help raise the resilience of individual banking institutions to periods of stress.
2. Macroprudential, system wide risks that can build up across the banking sector as well as the procyclical amplification of these risks over time.
These two approaches to supervision are complementary as greater resilience at the individual bank level reduces the risk of system wide shocks.
Basel III is part of the Committee’s continuous effort to enhance the banking regulatory framework. It builds on the International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards document (Basel II).
Basel III will require banks to hold 4.5% of common equity (up from 2% in Basel II) and 6% of Tier I capital (up from 4% in Basel II) of risk-weighted assets (RWA). Basel III also introduces additional capital buffers,
(i) a mandatory capital conservation buffer of 2.5% and
(ii) a discretionary countercyclical buffer, which allows national regulators to require up to another 2.5% of capital during periods of high credit growth.
In addition, Basel III introduces a minimum 3% leverage ratio and two required liquidity ratios. The Liquidity Coverage Ratio requires a bank to hold sufficient high-quality liquid assets to cover its total net cash outflows over 30 days; the Net Stable Funding Ratio requires the available amount of stable funding to exceed the required amount of stable funding over a one-year period of extended stress.
Basel III is an opportunity as well as a challenge for banks. It can provide a solid foundation for the next developments in the banking sector, and it can ensure that past excesses are avoided. Basel III is changing the way that banks address the management of risk and finance. The new regime seeks much greater integration of the finance and risk management functions. This will probably drive the convergence of the responsibilities of CFOs and CROs in delivering the strategic objectives of the business.
However, the adoption of a more rigorous regulatory stance might be hampered by a reliance on multiple data silos and by a separation of powers between those who are responsible for finance and those who manage risk. The new emphasis on risk management that is inherent in Basel III requires the introduction or evolution of a risk management framework that is as robust as the existing finance management infrastructures. As well as being a regulatory regime, Basel III in many ways provides a framework for true enterprise risk management, which involves covering all risks to the business.